Pogledaj Full Version : BiH History - Royal Yugoslavia and Communist Yugoslavia

Željko Zidarić
13th-June-2012, 10:20 PM
Written 27.11.2009.
Source: HercegBosna (http://www.hercegbosna.org/eng/history/history-bih/royal-yugoslavia-the-winter-of-our-discontent-1918-1941-6.html)

The former Yugoslavia had 23,472,000 inhabitants in the moment of its breakdown in 1991. It consisted of six republics, defined by the Constitution as the states. In the structure of the Republic of Serbia there were two autonomous provinces, defined as the federal units by the Constitution with the same status as the republics. As the multi-ethnic state, it was made up of six nations: Montenegrins(600,000 - 2.6%), Croats( 4,650,000 - 19.6%), Macedonians(1,420,000 - 6%),Muslims(2,200,000 - 8.9%),Slovenes ( 1,820,000 - 7,8%),Serbs(8,460,000 - 36.3%). Although treated as an ethnic group, Albanians( 2,150,000 - 8%) were more numerous than three South-Slav nations: Montenegrins, Slovenes and Macedonians. Then followed Hungarians accounting for 426,000 or 2%. Huge differences in numerousness, the largest nation being 14 times greater than the least one, influenced the political life in the country decisevely. The following figures show great differences concering the number of population in the republics:

Territory No.of inhabitants

Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,366,000
Montenegro 616,000
Croatia 4,760,000
Macedonia 2,034,000
Slovenia 1,974,000
Serbia proper 5,754,000
Kosovo(in Serbia) 1,955,000
Vojvodina(in Serbia) 2,013,000

Four official languages were used on the territory of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia was also a multi-religious country: Serbs, Montenegrins and Macedonians are members of the Orthodox Church(45.4%),Croats,Slovenians, then Hungarians, Slovaks, Czechs, Italians are Catholic(30.8%) and Bosnian Muslims and Turks are(Sunni)Muslim(17%).

So Yugoslavia was a conglomerate of nations, languages, cultures and religions.On the top of it,the elements from four different cultural civilization circles from the past have been inherited: Byzantine,Mediterranean,Middle-European and Islamic, which made an inerasable stamp on the social life of the South Slav nations. The differences on the level of modernity were greater than between the most developed and the most backward European countries. So, for example, national income per capita in Slovenia was seven times bigger than its equivalent in Kosovo.

In Europe, and perhaps in the world, there is no such a small geographic territory where so great differences conflated, as it was the case with Yugoslavia. We can say that all the main problems of the modern world civilizations were interweaved in this area. Beside these differences, it must be pointed out that up to the moment of the foundation of Yugoslavia in 1918,its nations had been living separated for a millenium and a half.

For 70 years Yugoslavia was testing all the possible social systems of the 20th century,what is a unique case in Europe. From 1918 to 1941 for eight years it was living in the system of parliamentary democracy limited by the king's will(1921 - 1929), then for six years in the system of military-monarchist dictatorship with the elements of fascism( 1929-1935),and then after that for six years in renewed pseudo-parlamentarianism(1935 -1941). During the World War II (1941 -1945), beside the liberation war it experienced brutal interethnic civil war among "Yugoslav" nations, when about a million people perished, more in mutual conflicts than in the struggle against the foreign invaders. For 46 years after the World War II (1945 - 1991) Yugoslavia had had Stalinist system from 1945 to 1952/53. than it changed it and during 26 years (1965 - 1991) from explicitly centralist it became confederal community with more developed mechanism of marketing than any other socialist country in Europe.

So, Yugoslavia had capitalism and communism - both in "softer" and "harder" form - but also fascism, occupation and the civil war 1941 - 1945.

The great powers participated in creation, maintenance,life and death of Yugoslavia, perhaps more than its nations. The victorious forces in the World War I - Great Britain, France , USA and Italy - supported the creation of Yugoslavia in 1918 by attaching the South Slav nations of defeated Austria-Hungary,namely Croats, Slovenes and Serbs, respectively Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Vojvodina, having in mind two basic aims: to create from the new state strong barrier against possible revival of the new German imperialism (Drang nach Osten) and to include it in cordon sanitaire against spread of bolshevism from Russia. In that way Yugoslavia became an important element of European Versailles order between the two world wars.

In 1941 the Axis forces - Germany under the leadership of Hitler and Italy under Mussolini - destroyed Yugoslavia, instrumentalized from the of Antanta between two world wars. This, on another tragic way proves the thesis that its destiny was not in the hands of its nations.

The victory forces in the World War II - Great Britain, USA and SSSR -supported the renewal of Yugoslavia, because their war aim was to restore all the countries which Hitler had destroyed.

At the end of the World War II Tito's Communist Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1948 was the most faithful,the most consistent and the most extreme ally of USSR. After the conflict Tito-Stalin in 1948, Yugoslavia got the status of a non-aligned state, but it was in a specific way included in the so called cold war. Namely, in 1948 it succeeded to pull out from the Soviet satellites regime. As it was before the foundation of NATO pact in 1949 and before the creation of Warszaw convention in 1955, both of these pacts tolerated non-aligned position of Yugoslavia, all until the breakdown of the Soviet empire.

The essence of inter-ethnic/national conflicts and the constant 70 years long crisis and the breakdown of Yugoslavia lies in the ideology of the nation-states foundation. In that view the South Slav nations do not differ from the process and creation of the national states in Europe and in the world. All European nations - big and small, developed and undeveloped- gave birth to national ideologies that yearned unsatiably for ever greater land which would cover the farthest branches of their nation and the most distant territory that had been ever in the range of "ancient, earlier" state. It was crucial historical fact that the South Slav nations had been founded before the creation of Yugoslavia in 1918, and they were incorporated in it with their ideology of creating independent states.And then the conflict situation set in. Victorious Serbia experienced the creation of Yugoslavia like realisation of its national ideology, hoping that other nations would merge into one with Yugoslavia, and by the time with the Serbian nation eventually. Because of many centuries old danger from German, Italian and Hungarian imperialism,Croats and Slovenes wanted to save themselves by entering into the "big" Yugoslav state. Nobody asked anything Macedonians-Serbs,Bulgarians and Greeks divided them.Also nobody asked anything Albanians and Muslims.In 1918 Serbia annexed Montenegro.

Therefore, as all the nations had already been formed before, in the new state they continued the struggle for their statehood. The result could not be but bitter fight which will, via the experience of the World War II and the one-party dictatorship, under the conditions of violent politicization and falling apart of communist totalitarianism, end in the final breakdown.

1918 - 1941
The kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, later called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The basic characteristic of this period is an aspiration of Serbs, using the domination in the army and politics, and relative numerousness (about 38% of the population) to intrude like the dominant actor in the country in order to "Serbianize" non-Serbian nations. In the regimen of limited parlamentariansm, military & police repression, drastic electoral manipulations, state robbery carried out by the means of monetary unification over underestimated money from the countries outside of Serbia, as well as political assassinations and corruption-all energy in the country was swallowed in strained political struggle, which led to the instant collapse of Yugoslavia in the war with Nazi Germany, as the country was worm-eaten inwardly.

The National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs founded in Zagreb.In the adopted Code of rules the Council pointed out that it was the political representative of "all Slovenes, Croats and Serbs who live in Croatia - Slavonia with Rijeka, in Dalmatia,Bosnia and Herzegovina, Istria, Trieste, Kranjska, Goriska, Stajerska, Koruska, Backa, Banat, Baranja, Medjimurje and in all other parts of south-west Hungary".

The foundation of Yugoslav state was proclaimed under the name: the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The rule of the Kardjordjevic dynasty.

On the elections for the Constituent Assembly, the Stjepan Radic's Croatian People's Peasant party (HSS) got fifty members of Parliament- more than all Croatian political parties put together. In all, the block of the parties with the programme of great-Serbian centralism got 44% of the votes, anti-centralist Croatian parties 23%, while the rest went to Slovenian, Muslim and other parties with generally anti-centralist tendencies, but well-known for corrupted and agreeable settebandiere behavior.

The so called "Vidovdan/Vitus's day Constitution" was proclaimed, through which the historical frontiers of the countries which constituted the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes were abolished. The central aim of gerrymandering at the state level was the achievement of Serbian supremacy by outvoting and centralization; the state was divided into 33 regions. The majority of the representatives in the Parliament (HSS, Republicans, Social-Democrats) left Assembly and the Constitution was proclaimed by "buying" the votes, mostly from Muslim parties in Bosnia and Hercegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia, as the Parlament would not have 50% of convocation without them.

Serbian radical deputy Punisa Racic shot in the Assembly in Belgrade into the group of deputies from the Croatian Peasant Party. He killed Pavle Radic and Djuro Basaricek, and Stjepan Radic was mortally wounded. Ivan Pernar and Ivan Grandja were also wounded.On the 8th of August 1928 Stjepan Radic died from the sustained wounds. The assassination of the political leader of Croatian people caused definite rift between Croats and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Immediately after the assassination a group of Croatian nationalists led by MP Ante Pavelic goes into exile to found an extreme nationalist organization, the Ustase.

The king Alexander I abolished the "Vidovdan Constitution" and installed himself as a dictator. Intensified regime of repression (assassinations of the prominent Croats, persecutions of Macedonians and Albanians, Serbian colonization on the non-Serbian territories, terror of political police).

Bosnia and Herzegovina had the following national structure: from 2,323,787 inhabitants, 23.58% were Croats, 30.90% were Moslems, 44.25% were Serbs and 1.02% others.

The king Alexander I was assassinated in Marseilles as the act of "retaliation" for his conspiracy role in the murder of Stjepan Radic.The organizers behind the plot belonged to the extreme Croatian nacionalist movement "Ustasha". His son Petar II inherited him, but the Regency Council ruled instead of him.

Faced with unsuccessful centralization policy, Serbian ruling classes agreed to compromise. An agreement was brought out between the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party Vladko Macek and the Prime Minister Dragisa Cvetkovic. The agreement resulted in creation of the Croatian Banovina, which beside the Savska and Primorska Banovina included the districts Dubrovnik, Sid, Ilok, Brcko, Gradacac, Derventa, Travnik and Fojnica. Therefore, about 30% of the territory of today's Bosnia and Hercegovina was included in the Croatian Banovina. Radical Croatian nationalists were against the agreement, considering that Bosnian Muslims, whom they regarded as the integral part of Croatian nation, were let down. The business of economy, trade, industry, social policy and some other were carried over under the authority of the Banovina. Ivan Subasic was appointed the Croatian Ban.

25th March 1941.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia joined the Tripartite pact.

27th March 1941
On the political initiative and with the support of the Government of Great Britain, the group of Serbian officers under the leadership of general Dusan Simovic dethroned the Cvetkovic - Macek Government. The king Petar II was announced of age, and the Regency Council was dismissed.

Željko Zidarić
13th-June-2012, 11:11 PM
Written 18.12.2009.
Source: HercegBosna (http://www.hercegbosna.org/eng/history/history-bih/world-war-2-heart-of-darkness-1941-1945-7.html)

The attack of the Third Reich and Italy on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia began. Yugoslavia capitulated on the 17th April, in less than two weeks.

1941 -1945

The World War II on the territory of Yugoslavia, divided in German and Italian spheres of influence(with Hungarian and Bulgarian "co-occupiers").

During the war the main opposing forces were:

occupying Fascist formations, strengthened with "domestic" forces (Croatian and Muslim on the territory of the puppet NDH, which included Croatia and Bosnia and Hercegovina; Serbian Fascists in Serbia and Albanians on Kosovo).
Serbian Chetniks, their stronghold in Serbia and the parts of NDH with Serbian population, with the nominal aim of re-establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, as well as with the practice and programme of pogrom and genocide over Croats, Bosnian Muslims and Albanians
the forces of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia with the programme of establishment of Yugoslavia as the federal state consisting of national republics (except Bosnia and Hercegovina, wich was designed as the three nations state),and with the social revolution based on the Soviet Stalinist model. Partisans (how the Communists soon came to be known ) became the most active fighters against German and Italian formations and their allies.

The war can generally be divided in 3 phases:

in the 1st period Communists and negligible part of Chetniks rose up en masse in arms rebellion against the occupying forces in Serbia and Montenegro. The uprising was completely broken down till the end of 1941.
in the 2nd period, which lasted till the approach of the Soviet Army close to the Yugoslav frontiers in the middle of 1944, the Partisan forces led mostly exhausting guerilla warfare on the territory of Croatia and Bosnia and Hercegovina. The main enemies are, except German and Italian units, military formations of NDH and the Chetniks of Draza Mihailovic.
in the 3rd period, supported by the Soviet Army, Tito's Yugoslav Army led final operations to destroy the opponent forces and achieved complete control over the Yugoslav territory. At the end of the war, wich itself was bloody, Tito's Communist Army committed war crime of mass atrocities and massacres of the opponent formations( as well as their families and civilians who were retreating with the defeated forces). The figures about soliders and civilians killed in this way vary, and they are from 80,000 to 250,000. Among them Croats suffered the most, over 2/3. After the bloody fight, the communist totalitarian dictatorship was established,with the KPJ (Communist Party of Yugoslavia)the only political subject and Josip Broz Tito as the untouchable dictator.

10th April 1941

Slavko Kvaternik, one of the leaders of the Ustasha organization in the country, pronounced by the means of Zagreb Radio-station the foundation of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH). The new state was announced under the wing of the Third Reich and the Fascist Italy as its main protectors with the final say in all crucial matters. Its territory covered parts of Croatia,Bosnia and Hercegovina and Srijem. A great part of the most developed Croatian Adriatic coast was given up to Italy, and Hungary usurped Medjimurje and Baranja.

15 April 1941

Ante Pavelic returned to Zagreb with cca. 150 Ustashas, after a period of exile in Italy. The idea of Croatian statehood, so longed after by the Croatian people, and finally realized with the act of the proclamation of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) had its roots in the desire for independence and freedom, strengthened by the suffering and pogroms experienced under the Greater Serbian regime of the Yugoslav kingdom.

But ironically, the initial enthusiasm was doused by Pavelic himself, with the handover of historical Croat lands in Dalmatia to the fascist Italian regime, as well as with his genocidal policies. His regimen, a puppet of Hitler's new world order, followed the Fuehrer's instructions with regard to persecution of Jews, Serbs and the Roma people.

In the case of the Serb population, his task was made "easier" by massacres inflicted by groups of Greater Serbian royalists (Chetniks) on the Croatian population in the lawlessness interregnum during the days of the creation of NDH.

The existing inter-ethnic conflicts, now with the backdrop of a war, turned into a full blown battle to be fought until extinction. This had its roots in two ideologies: a Greater Croatian one, in the role of a servant to the fascist powers, as well as a Greater Serbian one, which continued its repressive and genocidal policies, following on from massacres before WW1 (Balkan Wars), as well as numerous political assassinations and pogroms in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (several hundred Muslims and Croats were executed in the 1920's).

The long-term negative consequence for the Croatian people, which was only reversed by the liberation war against the Greater Serbian fascist aggression 1991-1995, was that the very idea of a Croatian state was compromised. Because some Croats fought for the Axis powers, the whole nation was stigmatized and labeled as a "pro-fascist" nation. Successful Serb-Yugoslav propaganda contributed greatly to the formation of this view, and by hiding the fact that Croats were more present, percentage-wise, in the anti-fascist struggle than virtually all the more numerous nations. All this resulted in the blocking and suffocating of the centuries old Croatian desire for freedom and independence.

Only the Homeland Liberation War of 1991-1995 did away with the exaggerated "sins of the past" and propaganda manipulations.

April 1941

The Communist movement under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito, a Croat appointed by the Communist International, decided for the armed resistance against the occupying forces and their domestic allies. Following such a course, the Communist leadership recognized the possibility for seizure of power in the country.


Ustashe massacres of Serbian population on the territories of Croatia and Bosnia and Hercegovina,as well as Chetnik massacres of Croatian and Bosnian Muslim peoples.
The mass rebellion of Tito's Communist Army in Serbia and Montenegro was broken down till the end of the year by the powerful German and Italian offensive with the help of Serbian Fascists and Chetniks. The Communist Partisans were cut down from about 50,000 soldiers to 4,500 fighters and expelled out of Serbia. The war continued with the greatest intensity on the territories of Croatia and Bosnia and Hercegovina.

1942 - 1943

Crucial period for creating Bosnia as well as whole Yugoslavia in the next half a century.

On the military level maximal concentration of the opposing forces appeared: along with about 160,000 German and 350,000 Italian, armed power of NDH achieved the manpower of over 160,000, and Chetniks of Draza Mihailovic counted ca 80,000 soldiers. The Communist Army, numbering 150,000 Partisans,leads exhausting guerilla warfare, retreating before the enemy's offensives and hardly breaking out of the enemy surround.

While the armed forces of NDH consisted exclusively of Croats and Bosnian Muslims, and Chetnik forces of Serbs, Tito's Communist Army was multiethnic, being a conglomerate of various nations. It counted about 44% Serbs, 30% Croats, 10% Slovenes, as well as Montenegrins and Muslims. From the Partisans brigades, great majority was Croatian and Bosnian: from 96 brigades 38 were Croatian, 23 Bosnian and Hercegovinian and 17 Slovenian, which shows that the war was fought with the greatest intensity on the territory of NDH, while Serbia and Montenegro were mostly pacified and under the Chetnik control.

Important battles were led from January ( so called the Battle on Neretva or the 4th Offensive) and from May ( so called the Battle on Sutjeska or the 5th Offensive) in 1943 - both having the aim to surround and destroy Tito's army and both fought nearly completely on the territory of NDH. The most important result of the 4th Offensive was the survival of Partisan movement, which succeeded to rout the Chetnik main forces and politically marginalize them. In that operations one third of Partisans was killed-50% of them Croats, but Chetnik royalist movement was eliminated as the real political option. In the 5th Offensive,which lasted during autumn, the Communist Army hardly, with heavy losses, broke the German-Italian encirclement. But, having preserved the Partisan core, Tito succeeded to capitalize on the collapse of Fascist Italy - except weapons, his army quickly grew by the mass inflow of new soldiers, mostly Croats and Slovenes, so that till the end of 1943 it counted 300,000 fighters.

On the political level the most important was the session of the supreme partisan political body - AVNOJ - on the 29th November 1943 in Bosnian town Jajce.
Decisions which sealed the destiny of Kingdom of Yugoslavia were as follows:

the supreme partisan political body AVNOJ becomes the main legislative council and the highest representative of sovereignity of all Yugoslav nations
foundation of the provisional government
all the rights of emigre Yugoslav government are taken away
the return of the king Petar II Karadjordjevic to Yugoslavia is forbidden
new Yugoslavia will be federal state union of nations having equal rights
Tito is assigned the title Marshal of Yugoslavia
the state commission is founded for investigation of the war crimes of the occupying forces and their collaborators.


On the island Vis the agreement was signed between the Marshal Tito and the former Ban of the Croatian Banovina Ivan Subasic, who became the president of the Yugoslav emigre government. Subasic engaged himself that his government would recognize AVNOJ and to call in people to join the anti-fascist movement. Thereby, the international community and the British government definitely recognized legitimacy and the rule of Tito's Army(NOVJ) and its institutions.

1945 - middle of the May

Near the Austrian frontier, in Bleiburg, the massive brutalization of Croats had begun, perpetrated by the Partisan Army with numerous amnested Chetniks from Serbia enlisted. In the last battles and in "death marches" about 50,000 Croats, members of the NDH armed forces, their families and civilians, were killed or died. Many of them fell into the Partisan captivity suffering on the long "Way of the Cross". But, these are the facts based on the demographic estimates of Croatian scientist Zerjavic and Serbian Kocovic.

According to these analyses which give very similiar results, Yugoslavia lost about a million people in the World War II, out of them about 500,000 Serbs, 200,000 Croats and 90,000 Bosnian Muslims. Bosnia and Hercegovina suffered the following losses: 164,000 Serbs, 64,000 Croats, 75,000 Muslims and 9,000 Jews.

But, more recent exhumations which were done on the places of execution in Slovenia after the fall of Communism have brought some doubts about this statistics: against 50,000 Croats killed by the Communists on the whole territory from Austria to Macedonia, the Slovenian Commission for War Crimes identified about 190,000 people killed in Partisan massacres in 1945/1946. As according to the discovery of the Commission, about 10,000 belonged to the members of Slovenian Home Defence Guards, and 180,000 to Croatian soldiers and civilians ,this asks new questions -not bringing into doubt the status of Marshal Josip Broz Tito as the greatest war criminal on the territory of the former Yugoslavia.

Željko Zidarić
13th-June-2012, 11:36 PM
Source: HercegBosna (http://www.hercegbosna.org/eng/history/history-bih/communist-yugoslavia-bosnian-chronicle-1945-1991-8.html)

Yugoslavia as the federal communist state.

The basic characteristics of this period are:

absolute authority of the Communist Party, especially President Tito and his subordinate inner circle
many social, political and economical reforms ("self-menangement"), whereby they wanted to make the country functional and people "satisfied" - not questioning the ruling communist dogma
steering a middle course after the break with Stalin's SSSR, Yugoslavia became a "ratified country" for both opposite blocks as a desirable buffer zone. Also, it became unprecedentedly involved in the international affairs, especially through the Non-alignment movement.
development from the rigid centralism to the growing federalism and confederalism of the state in oreder to to alleviate interethnic tensions and to preserve the country in tolerably functional form. Culmination of such attempts is the 1974 Constitution.
after the death of Tito, the absolute arbiter, the Presidency came to power. The Presidency, consisting of the representatives of all 6 republics and 2 autonomous provinces rotated the leadership every year to avoid possible ethnic/national majorization
under the pressure of great financial obligations, old-fashioned economical and political organization as well as radicalization of the inter-ethnic/national relationships caused by the great Serbian movement, Yugoslavia fell to pieces in 1991

In that period Bosnia and Hercegovina was organized as the "triple" pyramidal structure: the privileged class, with the unquestionable domination from the police to the education and economy, were Serbs thanks to their relative numerousness, to the "merit" of suffering in NDH (yet overblown by the statistics manipulations), to the dominanace in the communist apparatus,as well as to the role of the extended hand of the Belgrade centralism of their fellow-countrymen.

On the second place were Bosnian Muslims who were supported by the Tito's supreme authority as the bearer of the "statehood" tendencies in Bosnia and Hercegovina and like the counter-balance to the Serbian and Croatian national apirations and, as the high birth-rate "Oriental" ethnos, which, paradoxically, having given up many Oriental-Islamic ways of life, was good anyway like the bridge to the Islamic countries in the Non-alignment movement. Grateful to the Communist Yugoslavia which recognized them the status of a nation, as well as brainwashed with the indoctrination by which they "succeeded" to forget their massive participation in the armed forces of NDH - Bosnian Muslims became the factor number 2.in Bosnia and Hercegovina and the staunchest followers of Yugoslav phantasm.

Croats, as the least numerous and most suspicious/"treacherous" element, were bearing the stigma of a "reactionary" Catholic nation, accused for genocide and brutality of NDH (while Muslims were "generously" exculpated, and Serbs, the main Communist executioners, were battening on the privileges of the crime) underwent the destiny of second-class citizens. Constantly under police supervision and politically persecuted,their ethnic territories intentionally economically neglected, forced to emigration (out of the economical emigrants from Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croats, who made up ca 1/5 of the population, gave over 2/3 emigrants),with the repression of the Croatian language and intruding Serbian, from the education to the massmedia - Croats were particularly the subject of the totalitarian police regime: all with the purpose of depopulation and elimination of the Croatian nation like the "carcinogenic" element, which subverted realization of the Communist totalitarian paradise on the earth.

Those were the conditions under which Bosnia and Hercegovina met Yugoslavia's final collapse.

The Constitution of FNRJ (early name of Communist Yugoslavia) was brought out and according to it Yugoslavia consisted of 6 republics. One of them, Serbia, has two autonomous provinces, Vojvodina and Kosovo, within its structure.

Yugoslav communist party was thrown out from the Cominform ( an organization of the type of Comintern, USSR-dominated with most of its members Communist Parties of the newly captured countries of Eastern and Central Europe.) Tito turned to the West, asking for financial and other help, but Yugoslavia remained a communist totalitarian country.

Bosnia and Herzegovina had 2,565,259 inhabitants, 44.29% of them Serbs, 30.73% Bosnian Muslims, 23.94% Croats and 1.04 % others.

ca 1960
Economical reforms in Yugoslavia, promoting decentralization and de-etatization, gave certain results, but they were stopped due to the nature of the communist system - if they had been carried out to the logical end,it would have meant the end of the single-party totalitarianism and the end of Yugoslavia, which rested on it.

The Croatian national movement inspired by the Party's leadership of Croatian Communists broke out as a reaction to the long-lasting "creeping" Serbianization. Domination of Belgrade and Serbian mass-media, export-import firms, capital outflow from Croatia into the Eastern part of Yugoslavia, as well as the "outflow" of Croats on very often hard and low-paid work to the West - all that created critical mass of dissatisfaction with Yugoslavia, which was seen as, essentially, a Serboslavia hegemony. Under the pressure of Tito and unitarianist circles, Croatian Communist leadership capitulated. Repressions followed - about 70,000 "nationally conscious" Croatian Communists were thrown out from the Party, 2,000 were imprisoned and sentenced for various trumpeted up charges, and a few thousands of Croats were forced to emigrate.

According to the census, Bosnia and Herzegovina had 3,746,320 inhabitants. Among them 20.62% were Croats,37.19% were Serbs, 39.57% Bosnian Muslims and 2.62% others. With that census, for the first time, Bosnian Muslims got the right for the national self-identification under the name Muslims.

Croatian national guerilla fighters, 19 of them, trained in Australia, organized a landing operation near central-Bosnian town Bugojno in order to rise up in arms against great-Serbian tyranny. Most of them were killed in the fight with the superior Yugoslav military and police forces, which in panic involved near 10,000 professionals and subscriptioners.

The last Yugoslav Constitution, which tried to preserve the country through the confederal elements from the growing tensions and from the impending disintegration. Tito was proclaimed the President for life,and after the collective Presidency was provided, including the rotation of the members from every republic.

The death of Josip Broz Tito.

The trial of Alija Izetbegovic and twelve Bosnian Muslims in Sarajevo for promoting ideas of pan-Islamism and religious fundamentalism.

Meteoric rise to the power of the chief of Serbian Communist Party Slobodan Milosevic. Soon he became the main organizer of the great-Serbian movement, which wanted to realize an open domination of Serbs in Yugoslavia as the police state of the extreme form, or through the redrawing of the republics borders, to destroy Yugoslavia and on the ruins to carve out great Serbia, which would include entire Bosnia and Hercegovina as well as ca 70% of Croatia. Methods were different: from the massive Fascist-like rallies, police repression, threatening with JNA, which started to transform in an open instrument of Milosevic's politics with 77% of Serbian officers staff, to the theft of federal financial reserves and unsparing mass-media war, first of all against Albanians and Croats-everything with the aim to homogenize and to use hysterical Serbian masses in Yugoslavia for great-Serbian military aggression.

The Berlin Wall fell down.The end of Communism.

SKJ (The League of Yugoslav Communists) broke down after the Slovenian Communists had walked out in protest on the Congress of SKJ,not wanting to be the subject to Miloševic's politics of centralism and Serbianization of the Yugoslav Party.

On the first multi-party elections after half a century, the Communists were defeated in Croatia and Slovenia. The Croatian Democratic Union(HDZ) came to rule in Croatia under the leadership of the president Franjo Tudjman,with about 60% of the votes (the percentage differed depending on various houses of the Parliament).

Elections in Bosnia and Hercegovina marked the end of hope of the "reformist" forces of Ante Markovic, who was still formally the Yugoslav Prime Minister and lavishly supported by the West. Reformed Communists won 6%,Markovic's Reformists 5.6% and three national parties-Muslim, Croatian and Serbian-majority: Muslim SDA 37.8%, Serbian SDS 26.5% and Croatian HDZ 14.7%. Under these conditions, the last illusion about Bosnia and Hercegovina as the "anti-nationalist" Yugoslav bastion crumbled.

Out of 4,364,290 inhabitants of Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croats make 17.32%, Serbs 31.37%,Muslims 43.67% and others 7.64% of the population.