Pogledaj Full Version : Croatian Timeline

Željko Zidarić
4th-June-2012, 04:38 AM
October 19, 1918 Independence of Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia The National Council at Zagreb declared its political authority and declared for union between Croatia and Serbia.

November 7, 1918 - Serb-Croat-Slovene Union
Representatives in Geneva decided to unite Croatia and Slovenia with Serbia and Montenegro and form a new unified kingdom.

November 24, 1918 - Proclamation of Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom
The government proclaimed the establishment of the United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes at Zagreb. King Peter of Serbia became the new king, with Prince Alexander serving as regent for the aged king.

November 26, 1918 - Montenegran Union with Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom
Because King Nicolas of Montenegro opposed the union of Montenegro with the new United Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, the Montenegran parliament deposed King Nicolas and voted for union with the new kingdom.

December 25, 1918 - Albanian National Assembly
The Albanian National Assembly elected Turkhan Pasha the new president. The Albanian government had to deal with Serbian-Croat incursions in the northern part of the country as well as the Italians on the coast.

May 30, 1919 - Free City of Fiume Proposal
The French delegation proposed a compromise to settle the Fiume question. The French recommended the creation of a buffer state of Fiume, which the Serb-Croat-Slovene delegates rejected.

June 13, 1919 - Division of the Banat of Temesvar
The delegates at the Paris Peace Conference decided to divide the Banat of Temesvar between Romania and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.

July 20, 1919 - Presentation of the Treaty of St. Germain to the Austrians
The Treaty of St. Germain registered the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian empire and penalized the new Austrian republic as a representative of the Hapsburg regime. The Austrian government recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. These new states were required to provide guarantees of protection of minorities within their borders. Austria ceded Eastern Galacia to Poland and the Trentino, South Tyrol, Trieste, and Istria to Italy. The Austrian army was limited to 30,000 men and the Austrian government had to pay reparations to the Allies for 30 years. The treaty expressly forbid the union of Germany and Austria, except with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations.

September 12, 1919 - Italian Filibustering Expedition in Fiume
The Italian poet and nationalist Gabriele D'Annunzio led a filibustering expedition of volunteers and seized control of Fiume. The Italian government disavowed any support of the expedition. D'Annunzio set up a visionary government, forcing the Italians and Serbs-Croats-Slovenes to reach a compromise on the city.

November 27, 1919 - Treaty of Neuilly
The Bulgarian delegates signed the Treaty of Neuilly, which deprived the kingdom of an Aegean coastline and provided the Bulgarians only an economic outlet to the Mediterranean. The Bulgarian government recognized the independence of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes and agreed to pay $445 million in reparations. The Bulgarian army was reduced to 20,000 men and the Bulgarian armed forces had to surrender most of their war materials.

February 10, 1920 - Serb-Croat-Slovene Admission to the League
The League of Nations admitted the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) as a member state in the organization.

March 6, 1920 - Italo-Yugoslav Conference on Fiume
After the Italian filibustering expedition, led by Gabriele D'Annunzio, seized control of Fiume, the governments of Italy and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes met to solve this issue. The two governments reached a compromise in the Treaty of Rapallo on November 12th.

June 4, 1920 - Treaty of Trianon
With the evacuation of Romanian troops and renewed political stability, the Allies resumed their peace negotiations with the Hungarians which led to the signing of the Treaty of Trianon. Under the treaty, Hungary lost three-quarters of its pre-war territory and two-thirds of its inhabitants. The Hungarians ceded Slovakia to Czechoslovakia; Western Hungary to Austria; Croatia-Slavonia and part of the Banat of Temesvar to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes; and the remainder of the Banat of Temesevar, Transylvania, and part of the Hungarian plain to Romania. The Hungarians agreed to pay reparations to the Allies, maintain an army of only 35,000 men, turn over war criminals, and assume part of the imperial Austro-Hungarian debt.

August 14, 1920 - Czechoslovak-Yugoslav Treaty of Alliance
The governments of Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes signed a treaty of alliance which became the basis for the Little Entente. The two states agreed to enforce the Treaty of Trianon to prevent Hungarian revision and a possible Hapsburg restoration.

October 10, 1920 - Klagenfurt Plebiscite
Voters (57 percent) in Klagenfurt (Carinthia) settled the territorial dispute between Austria and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes by voting for continued union with Austria.

November 12, 1920 - Treaty of Rapallo
The Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes and Italy signed the Treaty of Rapallo which addressed the Fiume Question. Fiume became a free state (independent city) and the Italians renounced their claims to Dalmatia (Split and Sebenico), with the exception of Zara and a number of Dalmatian Islands in the Adriatic. The Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes gained Susak while Istria was divided between the two countries.

November 28, 1920 - Constituent Assembly Election in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
The Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes held elections for a constituent assembly, but no party gained a majority. The Croats, under the leadership of Stephen Radich, refused to take their seats in the assembly until the government recognize the federal principle as the basis of the constitution. The Croat boycott gave the Serbian Centralists, led by Nicholas Pasich, a free hand in the framing of the constitution.

June 7, 1921 - Little Entente Completed
The government of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes signed an alliance pact with Romania completing the Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Romania, and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes).

November 9, 1921 - Albanian Border Settlement
A conference of ambassadors settled the Albanian border dispute based on the 1913 demarcation, although the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes received small territorial concessions in the final treaty.

August 31, 1922 - Renewal of Czechoslovak-Yugoslav Treaty of Alliance
The governments of Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes renewed their treaty of alliance, which was the basis of the Little Entente.

May 10, 1923 - Saloniki Free Zone
The Greek government granted a small free zone in Saloniki to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes for 50 years. The free zone began operations in 1925 and provided the Serb-Croat-Slovenes access to the Aegean Sea.

January 27, 1924 - Italian-Serb-Croat-Slovene Treaty of Friendship
The governments of Italy and the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes signed a five-year treaty of friendship and reached an agreement on Fiume. The Italian government received the city while the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes gained Porto Barros and special facilities in Fiume. The treaty of friendship was not renewed in 1929.

December 12, 1924 - Albanian Counter-Revolution
Ahmed Zogu led a counter-revolution with the support of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes and regained control of the Albanian government. Bishop Fan Noli fled to Italy.

November 20-26, 1926 - Northern Albanian Insurrection
The Albanian government suppressed an insurrection in the north with difficulty. The rebels reportedly received support from the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes.

June 1927 - Severance of Serb-Croat-Slovene Relations with Albania
The government of the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes ended relations with the Albanian government after a number of border incidents which began in May 1927.

July 1927 - Serb-Croat-Slovene-Albanian Rapprochement
The European powers persuaded the government of the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes to restore diplomatic relations with the Albanians.

November 11, 1927 - Franco-Serb-Croat-Slovene Treaty
The governments of France and the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes signed a treaty designed to balance Italian advances in the Balkans.

August 1, 1928 - Croatian Separatism Movement
The assassination of Stephen Radish in parliament on August 8th resulted in the withdrawal of the Croatian delegates from the Serb-Croat-Slovene parliament. The Croats demanded the establishment of a federal state and set up a separatist "parliament" at Zagreb. King Alexander I was unable to negotiate a compromise to restore national unity.

January 5, 1929 - Serb-Croat-Slovene Dictatorship
King Alexander I, in an effort to eliminate national divisions within the kingdom, declared a dictatorship under the premiership of General Zhivkovich. The king suspended the constitution, dissolved parliament, and dissolved political parties, including the Croat Party.

March 27, 1929 - Greek-Serb-Croat-Slovene Treaty of Friendship
The governments of Greece and the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes signed a Treaty of Friendship. The settlement of the free zone controversy at Saloniki permitted the two states to address other problems in the region.

May 22, 1929 - Arrest of Vladko Marchek
The government of the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes arrested Dr. Vladko Marchek, the new leader of the Croat Party and successor to the assassinated Nicolas Radich.

June 1929 - Bulgarian Border Raids on the Kingdom of the Serbs-Croats-Slovenes
Macedonian revolutionaries from Bulgaria began a series of raids across the Serb-Croat-Slovene border. This resulted in acute tension between the Bulgarian and Serb-Croat-Slovene governments, who closed the frontier between the two countries.

September 26, 1929 - Bulgarian-Serb-Croat-Slovene Border Agreement
In response to the border tensions raised by Macedonian revolutionaries, the Bulgarian and Serb-Croat-Slovene governments established a frontier regime designed to improve security and eliminate cross border raids.

October 3, 1929 - Establishment of Yugoslavia
King Alexander I officially renamed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to Yugoslavia in an effort to eliminate old historical divisions and move towards a single national identity. The government divided traditional provinces into nine new banats with geographical names.

October 3, 1929 - Establishment of Yugoslavia
King Alexander I officially renamed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes to Yugoslavia in an effort to eliminate old historical divisions and move towards a single national identity. The government divided traditional provinces into nine new banats with geographical names.

June 14, 1930 - Marchak Acquittal in Yugoslavia
A Yugoslav court acquitted Dr. Vladko Marchak, leader of the Croat political party, of treason.

August 11, 1930 - Bulgarian Repression of Macedonians
The Bulgarian government took action against the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) which supported cross-border raids against Yugoslavia. The Bulgarian government arrested Ivan Mihailov in an effort to restore better relations with the Yugoslav government and restore political stability.

October 5-12, 1930 - First Balkan Conference
Representatives of the Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian, Turkish, and Yugoslav governments met in Athens, at the invitation of the Greek Prime Minister, Eleutherios Venizelos, to discuss regional issues. Prime Minister Venizelos hoped to improve relations between the Balkan powers and improve the region's economic situation in light of the Depression

September 3, 1931 - End of King Alexander I Dictatorship
King Alexander I of Yugoslavia announced the end of the dictatorship and the introduction of a new constitution which included a two-chamber parliament and the end of regional parties.

October 17, 1932 - Yugoslav Arrest of Machek
In an effort to stem nationalist agitation, the Yugoslav government arrested Dr. Vladko Machek, the leader of the Croat Peasant Party.

November 14, 1932 - Croat Demand for Autonomy
In response to the arrest of their leader, Dr. Vladko Machek, the Croat Peasant Party denounced the regime of personal rule in Yugoslavia and renewed their demands for regional autonomy.

January 1933 - Arrest of Croat and Slovene Leaders
The Yugoslav government arrested Slovene and Croat leaders in an attempt to undermine nationalist agitation.

April 29, 1933 - Croat Leader Jailed
A Yugoslav court found Dr. Vladko Machek, leader of the Croat national movement, guilty of treasonable activity and sent him to prison for three years.

October 3-November 1933 - Yugoslav Royal Visit to Bulgaria
King Alexander of Yugoslavia conducted state visits to Sofia, arriving on October 3, 1933, and Istanbul, as part of a series of visits by Balkan rulers seeking to establish a Balkan Pact in response to the rise of National Socialism in Germany.

December 10-13, 1933 - Bulgarian Royal Visit to Belgrade
Tsar Boris of Bulgaria conducted a state visit to Belgrade and received a tumultuous reception. This visit marked the beginning of the Bulgarian-Yugoslavian reconciliation which had undermined relations between the two countries since the end of World War I.

February 9, 1934 - Conclusion of Balkan Pact
The Turkish, Greek, Romanian, and Yugoslav governments signed the Balkan Pact. This agreement was designed to complement the Little Entente and protect the Balkans from encroachment by other nations. The four governments agreed to mutually guarantee the security of the Balkan frontiers and pledged not to take any action with regard to any Balkan non-signatory state without previous consultation. The failure to include Bulgaria in the alliance seriously weakened the effectiveness of the agreement (the Bulgarian government refused to recognize the postwar territorial settlements and could not join the alliance). The Balkan Pact reflected the work of the Romanian Foreign Minister, Nicholas Titulescu.

April-June 1934 - Grand Tour of King Alexander of Yugoslavia
In April 1934, King Alexander of Yugoslavia began a grand tour of Europe designed to help build up alliances to counter the growing power of Germany.

June 1, 1934 - Yugoslav-German Trade Agreement
The German and Yugoslav governments concluded a trade agreement to expand economic ties between the two countries. Many nations feared that the Yugoslavs were moving closer to Germany in response to the Italian-Austrian-Hungarian rapprochement.

June 12, 1934 - Bulgarian Abolishment of Political Parties
The new Bulgarian government abolished all political parties in the kingdom and took vigorous action against the Macedonians who were the chief opponents to the state's pro-Yugoslav foreign policy.

June 25, 1934 - French Official Visit to Belgrade
The French Foreign Secretary, Louis Barthou, conducted an official visit to Yugoslavia in response to the Yugoslav-German Trade Agreement. The French feared a Yugoslav defection from the Little Entente and convinced the Yugoslavian government to maintain their ties with France.

September 23, 1934 - Yugoslav Royal Visit to Sofia
King Alexander of Yugoslavia conducted an official state visit to Bulgaria with the hope of persuading the Bulgarians to join the Balkan Pact. His visit proved unsuccessful from that perspective.

October 9, 1934 - Assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia
Operating out of Hungary, a Macedonian revolutionary, working with Croat revolutionaries, assassinated King Alexander of Yugoslavia and Louis Barthou, the French Foreign Secretary, in Marseilles, France. The French and Yugoslavs were holding talks to develop stronger ties to deal with the growing power of Germany. The assassinations resulted in deportations from Hungary and Yugoslavia and threatened to lead to war between the two countries until the League of Nations negotiated a settlement to the crisis in December. Upon the death of his father, Peter II became the new king and Alexander's cousin, Prince Paul, served as the chief regent.

December 10, 1934 - League Settlement of King Alexander's Assassination
The League of Nations successfully concluded an agreement which avoided a war between Hungary and Yugoslavia after the assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia. Although the assassins operated out of Hungary, the League issued a mild rebuke against the Hungarian government.

June 3, 1935 - Croat Boycott of the Yugoslav Parliament
Following national elections on May 5th, the Croats resumed their boycott of the Yugoslav parliament. The Croats formed a coalition with a new party of Serbian peasants during the elections and attracted approximately 40 percent of the total vote in the kingdom.

July 25, 1935 - Yugoslav-Vatican Concordat
The Yugoslav government signed a concordat with the Vatican which granted Roman Catholics wider privileges in the kingdom (primarily in Croatia). Although the concordat was signed, Orthodox groups created so much disorder that the Yugoslav government was forced to drop the agreement. The overall effect was a disaster for the government. The state managed to estrange the Orthodox Church without winning any support from the Croats.

August 19, 1935 - Formation of Radical Union in Yugoslavia
Milan Stoyadinovich formed the Radical Union, a coalition of Serbian Radicals, Slovene Clericals, and Bosnian Moslems, which reaffirmed the unity of the kingdom of Yugoslavia and undermined plans for the establishment of a federation which would reflect nationalist concerns.

November 14, 1936 - German Denouncement of International Waterways
Under the Versailles Treaty, major German rivers and canals came under international control. Chancellor Adolf Hitler announced that the German government would resume control over waterways in Germany. Only the Czechoslovak, French, and Yugoslav governments protested against this unilateral action, otherwise the denouncement caused barely a ripple of protest despite another breach of the international treaty system.

May 1936 - German-Yugoslav Barter Agreement
The German and Yugoslav governments concluded an economic agreement to promote trade between the two countries. The Yugoslav government found this new arrangement necessary in light of the significant decline in trade with Italy as the result of Yugoslavia's imposition of economic sanctions during the Ethiopian crisis. Closer trade relations with Germany represented a first step towards rapprochement between Germany and Yugoslavia, a decision that was unpopular among the Yugoslav people.

October 6, 1937 - New Opposition Political Party in Yugoslavia
The opposition political parties in Yugoslavia closed ranks and formed the Agrarian-Democratic Party. This organization was composed of Croat and Serb democrats and demanded the immediate end of the dictatorship, under Milan Stoyadinovich, and the restoration of democratic government. The growth of the political opposition forced Premier Stoyadinovich to redouble his efforts to win the Croat nationalists, but his efforts proved unsuccessful.

April 27, 1939 - Reorganization of Yugoslavia as a Federation
The Yugoslav government reached an agreement with Vladko Machek, leader of the Croats, on the reorganization of the kingdom as a federation.

August 25, 1939 - Croatian Autonomy
In light of the political tensions in central Europe, the Yugoslav government extended autonomy to Croatia in an attempt to restore political stability in the kingdom.

August 26, 1939 - Democratic Government Restored in Yugoslavia
The Cvetkovich government restored democratic government in Yugoslavia, including secret ballots. The state was reorganized on a federal basis and the Croats received complete autonomy in cultural and economic issues. Vladko Machek, the leader of the Croats, became Vice Premier and five other Croats joined the government. This political settlement addressed a long-standing dispute between the Croats and the Serbs.

September 27, 1940 - Three-Power Pact
The German, Italian, and Japanese governments signed a Three-Power Pact in Berlin. The treaty called for total aid (military and economic) to the three members of the pact for ten years. The three states promised each other mutual assistance in the event that any of them became involved in a war with a power not then a belligerent (namely, the USSR or the United States). The goal of the agreement was to "promote the prosperity of their peoples." The Axis pact was eventually extended to include Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Yugoslavia.

March 25, 1941 - Yugoslavian Alliance with the Axis Powers
The government of Prince Paul of Yugoslavia signed the Three-Power Pact at Vienna and Yugoslavia became part of the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.

March 27, 1941 - Military Coup in Yugoslavia
The Yugoslav army overthrew the pro-Axis government of the Yugoslav regent, Prince Paul, and proclaimed Peter II as king. General Simorich set up a new cabinet and announced that Yugoslavia would follow a policy of neutrality.

April 6, 1941 - German Invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece
After the overthrow of Prince Paul's government, the Germans decided to invade Yugoslavia to secure the Axis position in the Balkans. German troops deployed in Germany, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria poured across the frontier into Yugoslavia and Greece. Soviet newspapers accused the Germans of widening the war.

April 10, 1941 - Fall of Belgrade
Wehrmacht forces occupied the capital of Yugoslavia, although fighting continued across the kingdom. Partisan units took up a guerilla war against the Germans and their Yugoslav allies.

April 17, 1941 - Surrender of Yugoslavia
The Yugoslav government signed a treaty of capitulation, twelve days after the Germans first invaded. Guerilla forces resumed military operations, harassing German and Italian forces in former Yugoslav territory.

September 24, 1941 - Endorsement of the Atlantic Charter
Fifteen countries, including nine in exile, signed the Atlantic Charter and embraced the document's war aims. The signatory states included Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, the Free French, Great Britain, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, the Soviet Union, the Union of South Africa, and Yugoslavia.

January 20, 1943 - Croatia and Geneva Convention
The Independent State of Croatia had joined the Geneva Convention and was recognised by it as a "belligerent", that is, as a national state with armed forces in the field.

October 9, 1943 - Yugoslav Partisan Offensive against the Germans
With the Italian surrender to the Allies, the Germans occupied former Italian positions in the Balkans. Marshal Tito (Josip Broz) led Yugoslav guerilla forces against German troops outside of Trieste.

December 20, 1943 - Allied Aid to Tito
The American and British governments decided to provide military aid to Marshal Tito and the Yugoslav partisans.

October 20, 1944 - Allied Capture of Belgrade
German forces in Yugoslavia faced a growing Partisan opposition, which tied down considerable numbers of German troops. The Germans were unable to stop the Red Army advance into Yugoslavia and Yugoslav and Soviet forces liberated Belgrade on October 20th, driving out the German occupation troops.

November 3, 1944-February 13, 1945 - Defense of Budapest
By early November, the Red Army, flushed with victories in Romania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia, reached the gates of Budapest. Hungarian and German troops mounted a savage defense of the city and the last troops did not capitulate until February 13, 1945.

May 12, 1945 - Trieste Occupation Controversy
Italian Premier Ivanoe Bonomi called on the Allied governments to send troops to occupy Trieste. The British and U.S. governments warned Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia that Trieste had to remain under Allied control.

May 15, 1945 - Croatia Surrenders
The NDH troops began surrendering to the British. The British negotiator was Brigadier Patrick T. D. Scott of the 38th (Irish) Infantry Brigade. Ustaše infantry generals Ivo Herenčić of the V Ustasha Corps, and a translator, Professor/Colonel Danijel Crljen, were involved in the surrender negotiations. In the afternoon of the same day, the Croatian forces started raising white flags in surrender. NDH military representatives attempted to negotiate a surrender to the British under the terms of the Geneva Convention, but were directed to surrender to the Yugoslav military.

May 17-26, 1945 - Bleiburg Massacre
Yugoslav communist forces start killing repatriated Croatian soldiers and civilians.

May 20, 1945 - U.S. Withdrawal from Trieste
The U.S. withdrew its military forces in Trieste. In response, Marshal Tito agreed to evacuate Yugoslav forces from Carinthia.

November 11, 1945 - Yugoslav Constituent Elections
Yugoslav voters gave a substantial majority to Marshal Tito's Communist-dominated National Front in the country's elections for a Constituent Assembly.