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Pogledaj Full Version : The Great Migration - The Dark Ages



Željko Zidarić
30th-May-2012, 03:26 AM
What caused the Slavs to move from "White Croatia" to present day Croatia?

The Migration period, also called the Barbarian Invasions or German: Völkerwanderung (wandering of the peoples), was a period of human migration that occurred roughly between the years 300 to 700 CE in Europe, marking the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. These movements were catalyzed by profound changes within both the Roman Empire and the so-called 'barbarian frontier'. Migrating peoples during this period included the Goths, Vandals, Bulgars, Alans, Suebi, Frisians, and Franks, among other Germanic and Slavic tribes.

Here are some details about what the environment was like during those days:

End of the Roman Empire - The slow decline of the Roman Empire, which occurred over an estimated period of 320 years which many historians believe finally culminated on September 4, 476 when Romulus Augustus, the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire was deposed by Odoacer, a Germanic chieftain. While under Roman control, the "Wild Lands" were relatively civilized but after the fall there was no law and the lands became the "Wild West".

Global Cooling - 6th Century Cooling was caused by a volcanic eruption which happened in 535 AD, and that its effects were felt in the Northern Hemisphere in the following year. “the most severe volcanic cooling event in the Northern Hemisphere in the past 2,000 years”. The cooling lasted until until about 900 AD. At its height, the cooling caused the Nile River (829 AD) and the Black Sea (800-801 AD) to freeze.

Plague of Justinian was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), including its capital Constantinople, in the years 541–542 AD where approximately 40% of the people died. The plague ravaged Europe all the way to Denmark and by some estimates between 30-60% of the population died. Death was not symmetrical as in some places up to 90% of the people died off while in other areas far fewer died. This led to many areas of unpopulated land.

Avar Invasions - Like Attila before him, by about 580 the Avar Khagan, Bayan, established supremacy over practically all Slavic, Hunno-Bulgar, and Germanic tribes. When the Eastern Roman Empire was unable to pay subsidies or hire Avar mercenaries, the Avars raided Rome's Balkan communities. According to Menander, to sack Dalmatia in 568, Bayan commanded 10,000 Kutrigur Bulgar, effectively cutting Byzantium's land link with North Italy and the West. By 582, the Avars had captured Sirmium, an important fort in the former Roman province of Pannonia. When the Byzantines refused to increase the stipend amount requested by Bayans's son and successor Bayan II (from 584), the Avars proceeded to capture Singidunum and Viminacium. As Byzantium declined the Persians invaded giving the Avars more freedom and they grew stronger. In 610 AD they attempted an invasion of northern Italy. Payments in gold and goods reached the record sum of 200,000 solidi shortly before 626. Clearly the Avars were starting to annoy Rome.

http://domovod.info/zzimages/hist/Avars1.jpg

http://domovod.info/zzimages/hist/Avars2.jpg


To add a bit of feeling for what life was like during the Great Migration

Could global cooling have caused the migration?

Climate Time-line in Europe


200 BC to 400 AD was the Roman Warm Period in Europe. This Icelandic shell data series suggests that the RWP had higher temperatures that those recorded in modern times.
By 410 AD there had been a return to cooler temperatures presaging the onset of a cold and wetter era called the Dark Ages Cold Period between 400 AD and 600 AD.
500 AD to about 900 AD a generally cold 'Dark Ages' climate, The warming trend in Iceland (http://www.thegwpf.org/the-observatory/653-new-technique-shows-roman-warm-period-warmer-than-present-day.html) took place from 600 AD to 760 AD about a century before prolonged warming began in Europe.
After 900 AD came the Medieval Warm Period that was about as warm as the Roman one. (Is there a coincidence that Croatia reached the height of its power in the region during the Warm Period between 900 to 1100 AD?)


Some people say that the cause of the fall of the Roman empire in the West around 400 AD was a change in the climate, which caused famines and plagues and made people unhappy with their government. It is true that there was a cold period around this time in Western Europe, but it probably came a little later, in the 500's and 600's AD, too late to be the cause of the fall of Roman government. But around 500 the climate did get colder. In the south, like in Spain, this may have been good: more rain, maybe. In the north, in France, Germany, and England, it was bad. There was a lot of flooding in the river valleys, and many Roman villages in the valleys had to be abandoned as people moved up onto the hills. You couldn't grow olives or wine so far north as before. One result was a general shift to eating butter rather than olive oil and using tallow or beeswax candles for lighting instead of oil lamps.

By about 800, in the time of Charlemagne, the weather began to improve again, and around 1000 AD was probably a very good time in Europe, when it was easy to grow wheat and barley and even wine again.


The Dark Ages Cold Period has been observed in paleoclimatic data from all parts of Europe, often in long temperature histories that reveal the existence of similar multi-century cold intervals sandwiched between equally significant periods of warmth. In Europe, as in Asia, there is also evidence that the Dark Ages Cold Period was not a particularly good time for human societies residing in the northern parts of the continent. (Could this have been a stimulus for people to move from White Croatia to the Adriatic?)


The Italian historian Flavius Cassiodorus wrote about conditions that he experienced during the year AD 536 :

"The Sun...seems to have lost its wonted light, and appears of a bluish colour. We marvel to see no shadows of our bodies at noon, to feel the mighty vigour of the Sun's heat wasted into feebleness, and the phenomena which accompany an eclipse prolonged through almost a whole year. We have had a summer without heat. The crops have been chilled by north winds, [and] the rain is denied."
Other writers of the time described similar conditions :

Procopius : "...during this year a most dread portent took place. For the Sun gave forth its light without brightness...and it seemed exceedingly like the Sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear."

Lydus : "The Sun became dim...for nearly the whole year...so that the fruits were killed at an unseasonable time."

Michael the Syrian : "The Sun became dark and its darkness lasted for eighteen months. Each day it shone for about four hours, and still this light was only a feeble shadow...the fruits did not ripen and the wine tasted like sour grapes."

In China, "the stars were lost from view for three months". Records indicate that the light from the Sun dimmed, the expected rains did not eventuate, and snow was seen in the middle of summer. Famine was widespread, and in the midst of the turmoil, the Emperor abandoned the capital.

Dark Ages Cold Period Summary (http://www.co2science.org/subject/d/summaries/dacpeurope.php)
The Dark Ages : Were They Darker Than We Imagined? (http://gchbryant.tripod.com/Articles/darkages0999.htm)
The Black Death And How It Changed Europe (http://society.blogbevy.com/category/dark-ages/)

Željko Zidarić
30th-May-2012, 03:36 AM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dKeHm2VfwaM

Dolazak Hrvata


Arrival of the Croatian

U junačkoj zemlji miloj, lijepoj i dalekoj, u godini gospodnjoj šest stotina i nekoj,
spustila se na tu zemlju sila, plava je krv narod predvodila.


In the dear heroic land, beautiful and distant, In the year of the Lord six hundred and some,
A power descended on that land, Blue blood led the people.

Drhti zemlja, kamen puca, kroz nebeska vrata,
dojahao bijeli vitez sa mačem od zlata.


The ground trembles, stones are cracking, Through Heaven’s door,
Rode up a white knight With a golden sword.

"Dajte mi komad zemlje svete, zemlja je i mati i dijete."


“Give me a piece of sacred land, the land is a mother and a child.”

Ljubi svoju zemlju, na njoj ti sagradi dom, i brani je krvlju svojom povezan si s njom.
Ljubi svoju zemlju, ljubi blagoslovljen plod, i ponosno po njoj hodaj svoj zemaljski hod.


Love your land, on it build your home, And protect it, through your blood you are attached to it.
Love your land, love the blessed fruit, And proudly walk on it your earthly walk.

"Dajte mi komad zemlje svete, zemlja je i mati i dijete."


“Give me a piece of sacred land, the land is a mother and a child.”

Bijeli vitez krenu natrag kroz nebeska vrata, ostavio Lijepu našu bez gladi i rata.
Pred nebeskog Oca klekne s' riječima od zlata:"Predao sam zemlju svetu u ruke Hrvata."


The white knight went back through heavenly door, Leaving our Beautiful One free of hunger and war.
Before Heavenly Father he kneels down with the golden words: “I delivered the sacred land into the hands of Croats.”

A junačka zemlja moja mila, do danas je riječi zapamtila.


And our dear heroic land, To this day remembers these words.

Ljubi svoju zemlju, na njoj ti sagradi dom, i brani je krvlju svojom povezan si s njom.
Ljubi svoju zemlju, ljubi blagoslovljen plod, i ponosno po njoj hodaj svoj zemaljski hod.


Love your land, on it build your home, And protect it, through your blood you are attached to it.
Love your land, love the blessed fruit, And proudly walk on it your earthly walk.

"Dajte mi komad zemlje svete, zemlja je i mati i dijete."


“Give me a piece of holy land, the land is a mother and a child.”

Ljubi svoju zemlju, na njoj ti sagradi dom, i brani je krvlju svojom povezan si s njom.
Ljubi svoju zemlju, ljubi blagoslovljen plod, i ponosno po njoj hodaj svoj zemaljski hod.


Love your land, on it build your home, And protect it, through your blood you are attached to it.
Love your land, love the blessed fruit, And proudly walk on it your earthly walk.

"Dajte mi komad zemlje svete, zemlja je i mati i dijete."


“Give me a piece of holy land, the land is a mother and a child.”

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