Pogledaj Full Version : New York Times in 1919 - Articles about Kingdom of SCS

Željko Zidarić
30th-May-2012, 12:50 AM
It is one thing to read history books which are for the most part someone's interpretation of what happened, but it is another to read actual newspaper reports about what was happening at the time. Here I present articles from the New York Times pertaining to the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

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Austrian Slovenes and Croats Agitating for a Revolution
Published: May 1, 1918 Copyright © The New York Times

London, April 30. - A dispatch sent out today by Reuter's Agency says that is has been learned from Serbian sources that signs of an approaching revolution in Austria-Hungary are becoming daily more evident. A plebiscite is being held among the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in favor of union with Serbian and Montenegro in one independent State under King Peter of Serbia. The Prince Archbishop of Carniola is at the head of this movement. "Demonstrations of a very serious character are taking place in the Jugoslav provinces," says the dispatch. "Now comes the news that at the request of the Austrian Government, and with the sanction of the Pope, the Nuncio at Vienna has opened a disciplinary inquiry against the Archbishop of Carniola for placing himself at the head of this revolutionary movement. Great developments are expected."

Pan-Slav Meeting in Ohio
Published: September 8, 1918 Copyright © The New York Times

One of the most important Pan Slav meetings held recently in this country took plat at Lorain Ohio, celebrating the fourth anniversary of Austria's declaration of war on Serbia. From a;; Northeastern Ohio Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes with Rumanians, gathered for a demonstration with was referred to by Professor H. A. Miller of Oberlin College

Big Meeting at Pittsburgh Appeals to America and Allies
Published: December 2, 1918 Copyright © The New York Times

Pittsburgh, Dec 1. - With 600 Jugoslav delegated, representing every colony in America, in convention with all members of the Pittsburgh colony, the greatest meeting of Slavs ever called in America was held here today. A unanimous resolution for the amalgamation of all Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes under a government header by their "great and democratic King, Peter Karageorgevich," was adopted which will be sent to the American delegates at the Peace Conference, and also to the allied and Serbian Governments, in part the resolution said: "We have done things which have been acknowledged by all those that were associated with us in this great war, and now that it is brought to an end our ideals should be carried out, which are that our union must be realized according to the wishes of our people."

Croat Soldiers Rebel
Published: December 10, 1918 Copyright © The New York Times

Reported Dissatisfied with Plan to Unite Country with Serbia.
Dec. 9. - Strong dissatisfaction exists among the republicans at Agram with the decision of the National Council to unite Jugoslavia under the Serbian dynasty. News has just been received here indirectly of disturbances among the Croatian soldiers on this ground, and the Agram Government, it states, has had to impose a preventative censorship. From the same source it is reported that the Rumanians are unable to occupy Petrozseny, a mining town in Southern Transylvania because the Rumanian soldiers have deserted. I cannot vouch for the accuracy of this news since it was received here from Budapest, which naturally is disposed to make the most of the dissensions of its opponents, but judging from recent events there is nothing improbable in the reports.

Greater Serbian Government Is Organized at Belgrade
Published: January 6, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

Paris, Jan. 5, (Havas.) - A new government has been formed at Belgrade by representatives of all the Jugoslavs, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Dalmatia, Croatia and Slovenia.

The Entente Powers and neutral Government, according to the Journal de Debats, have been informed that the Kingdom of Serbia is not the United Serbian-Croatian-Slovene Kingdom.

The Jugoslav Kingdom
Published: January 9, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

Congratulations may be offered to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, whose consolidation out of the old Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro and the Jugoslav provinces of Austria-Hungary has been formally announced. Many thousands of men men have died to make it a reality; its people have suffered as much as any other in the war; and only a few weeks ago it seemed possible that the ambitions of politicians might retard the accomplishment of a national aspiration realized at such heavy expense. The fears are unjustified; until a National Assembly shall give final form to the new Government the affairs of the Jugoslav nation are in the hands of a State Council and a Cabinet representing all classes of the people, and its authority seems to be accepted by everybody but King Nicholas (Montenegro), who is naturally aggrieved by the fact that his people have deprived him of his crown. His opposition is likely to be about as futile as that of other dethroned monarchs to the changes in their dominions.

The Karageorgevitch dynasty has been accepted as the head of a constitutional monarchy; the Constituent Assembly will have power to proclaim a republic if it wants to, but the Jugoslavs will have power to proclaim a republic is it want to, but the Jugoslavs have all but the form of a republic already, and the services of King Peter and Prince Alexander have been so great that opposition to them is not likely to be serious. While Mr. Pashitch, the Premier of Serbia, is head of the consolidated Government, his power is by no means so great as it was in the smaller kingdom, and associated with him are such men as Father Koroshetz, late leader of the Jugoslavs in the Austrian Parliament, as Vice Premier, and Dr. Trumbitch, who as Foreign Minister will continue the good work which he did as head of the Jugoslav Committee in allied countries during the war. It is an auspicious and welcome event ending a difficult situation, which promises well for the stability of the new State.

Montenegrins Revolt Against Serbs:
Ask Protection of American Troops
Published: January 17, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

Washington, Jan. 16. - Occupation of Montenegro by Serbian troops has resulted in a revolt by the Montenegrins, according to an official statement issued here tonight at the Montenegrin Legation.

Insurgents numbering about 20,000 have succeeded in occupying several towns from which the Serbian forces were driven.

The insurgents, the announcement says, have sent a delegation to King Nicholas at Paris asking that American troops be sent to Montenegro to preserve order.

Some weeks ago the State Department was informed by the Montenegrin Committee for National Unity that a convention of representatives duly chosen by the MOntenegrin people had met and deposed King Nicholas and voted to join the country with the federation of of the Serbs, Slovenes, and Croats under the Serbian dynasty. Later representatives of the assembly went to Belgrade to report this action, and the country was formally accepted by the King Regent as a part of Greater Serbia.

The Montenegrin Government has insisted, and has so informed the State Department that the assembly which deposed King Nicholas was without authority, as it never had been legally formed. The legation's statement tonight called attention to the fact that the victorious associated nations had decided that Montenegro should have a representative at the Peace Conference.

Croats and Slovenes Want to Sit in the Peace Congress with Serbs
Published: January 17, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

Paris, Jan 16. - Serbian cannot take part in a delegation from the combines Serbo-Croatian-Slovene State the Jugoslav Committee here declares in a protest issued against the decision of the Supreme Council to admit delegates from the Kingdom of Serbia, but not of the United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.

The committee says that this action threatens to provoke a conflict which may have serious consequences, and that the refusal to accept the delegates of the united State would make it impossible for Serbia herself to participate in the conference.

The protest concludes by saying that the Council,in arriving at its decision, did not take into account the new situation in Serbia, and this will be obliged to examine the question anew.

Vienna Asserts Conflict with Jugoslavs is Imminent
Published: January 20, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

Special Cable to the New York Times
Vienna, jan 17, (Via Genoa, Jan. 18.) - According to the special information from Trieste, the strained relations between Jugoslavs and Italians are assuming a critical stage. A settlement of their differences is improbably and an outbreak of hostilities is considered imminent.

The situation is further aggravated by the attitude of the French authorities in Trieste and Pula, who express aversion to the Italian plans in the Adriatic.

Italian Outgoing ships in Trieste and Pula are searched by the Entente authorities in order to prevent the Italians taking coal and materials from the magazines of the former Austrian Government.

Special Cable to the New York Times
Vienna, Jan 22, (via Geneva, Jan 23.)
Published: January 25, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

Serious dissections are reported among the Jugoslavs/ Croatians and Slovenes are incensed against the Karageorgievic dynasty and the central government at belgrade owing to their weak attitude against the Italian encroachments. The Serbians are charged with not seriously demanding Trieste and Istria for the Jugoslavs because they themselves want for Belgrade merely the Dalmatian harbours.

Slovenian and Croatian bad feeling against the Serbian dynasty is particularly based on religious grounds, the Croatians and Slovens being strict Roman Catholics, fear Orthodox propaganda under Serbian auspices.

Laments D'Annunzio Talk.
Paris Matin Regrets His Charge of French Support of Jugoslavs.
Published: January 28, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

Paris - "Poets at times are forgetful," is the heading given in Le Matin today to a paragraph expressing regret that Gabriele d'Annunzio, once so freely feted by Paris, has written an article for an Italian journal in which he accuses France of working hand-in-hand with the Jugoslavs against Italy.

The poet, Le Matin says, has raked history to find arguments to stir up Italy against France, going back to the carrying off of the bronze horses from St. Mark's in Venice by Napoleon.

"D'Annunzio," adds the newspaper, "recently declared he would write no more romances, but he has written one more, which this nation will read and forgive, remembering the poet;s previous tributes to France and the splendid file he played in inducing Italy to enter the war.

Jugoslavs Not Enemies
Their Part in the Breakdown of the Austrian Empire
Published: January 31, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

To the Editor of The New York Times:
According to the newspapers, Mr La Guardia, at the meeting in the Metropolitan Opera House last Sunday, in honour of Italy, denounced the claims of the Jugoslavs and insisted that the pretensions of the Jugoslavs were the machinations of Imperial Austria. "There is," he said, "a great difference between the Czechoslovaks and the Jugoslavs - the Czechoslovaks fought with us and the Jugoslavs against us."

When Mr. Laguardia mentioned the Jugoslavs he omitted to tell that month these Jugoslavs are included Serbians, and that there is no difference between Serbian and Jugoslav claims. But even if he had in mind only those Jugoslavs who were former subjects f Austria, the assertions of Mr La Guardia are very ungenerous.

Czechoslovaks and Jugoslavs, as well as all other races subject to Austria, among them the Italians in Austria, fought in the Austrian Army because they were compelled to do so.

Jugoslav prisoners went over to the Serbians and Russians and formed volunteer legions. In Russia were two divisions of Jugoslav volunteers, and in the battle of Dobrudja a public declaration of the Russian General Staff said that they saved the honor of the allied flags. When the Serbians broke through the Bulgarian lines Jugoslav blood from Slovenia and Croatia was as freely shed as Jugoslav bolo from Serbia. If the Jugoslavs as much have not been officially recognized as Allies, they have to thank for it Italy, which tries now to depict them as enemies. Even in Italy Jugoslav war prisoners sent repeated and urgent appeals to be allowed to form volunteer legions, but Sonnino constantly refused. The reason is now obvious.

Every one knows that the internal collapse of Austria broke the backbone of the central Powers. And the Jugoslavs were one, if not the main, factor in bringing this about.

The Jugoslavs in America, mostly American citizens, are a substantial element in the American mining and steel industry, and they have done well their "bit" during the war. How they feel at such utterances of an American Congressman everybody can easily understand.
Yugoslav Information Bureau, R. F Hlacha

The Jugoslavs Defended
Published: February 2, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

To the Editor of The New York Times:
I am very much averse to newspaper polemics regarding international matters now pending before the Peace Conference, as I believe as a rule they can only envenom the situation, but I cannot let the article by Captain Tozzi and Lieutenant Pecorini in yesterday's TIMES pass unanswered as it is calculated to lead public opinion astray on a very important question.

The writers start off with a comparison which must revolt even fair-minded man or woman in allied countries/ "The Italian people," they say, "do not see why there should be such a difference between the treatment accorded to Germans and that accorded to the Southern Slavs of Slavonia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina." Does this mean that the Itlaian people make no distinction between the Southern Slavs and the Germans as enemies in the war? If so, all further discussion of the question would be useless.

Can any fair-minded Italian for one instant pretend that the Southern Slavs were loyal subjects of Franz Josef, desiring the triumph of Austrian arms? The records are public. Month after month the South Slav members of the Austrian Parliament registered one impassion ate protest after another against the imperial regime. It is notorious that the whole of Jugoslavia was seething with revolt, that thousands of Jugoslavs were hanged or imprisoned and that open insurrection was only prevented by the fact that the entire male population of military age had been mobilized and sent to the front.

The Jugoslav regiments surrendered "en masse" to the Serbs and to the Russians because they would not fight against the Allies. Capt Tozzi and Lieutenant Pecorini must know that after the Congress of Oppressed Nations was held in Rome and the Jugoslavs were led to believe that Italy had abandoned her pretensions to annex Jugoslav territory, the Jugoslav regiments also surrendered "en masse" on the Italian front. Serbia proclaimed from the very first that she was fighting to free her brother in race from the Austrian yoke, and every Jugoslav saw in Serbia the liberator, and Serbia was one of the allied powers.

Capt Tozzi and Lieutenant Pecorini complain that the Jugoslavs fought fiercely against the Italians. Can they however pretend that the army of King Victor Emmanuel was an army of liberation coming to free the Jugoslavs from the Austrian yoke?

According to the document signed on behalf of Italy by Marquies Imperiali territories inhabited by 750,000 Jugoslavs were to be handed over to Italy without being consulted and against their will. What is this but annexation, naked and unashamed? What becomes of the much vaunted self-determination of peoples? Is it astonishing that when the Jugoslavs learned the fate reserved for them they fought the invading Italian army to the death? The Jugoslavs look to the Allies for liberation. Can Capt Tozzi and Lieutenant Pecorini for one moment pretend that the Italian army was an army of liberation?

I trow not. It was an army of invasion coming to seize Jugoslav territory and enslave 750,000 Jugoslavs.

To suggest that this resistance meant that the Jugoslac=vs preferred Austrian to Italian domination is utterly unjustified. but even if they did, what right has Italy to sit in judgement? The appreciation of two tyrannies must be left to the victims, not to the tyrants.

Captain Tozzi and Lieutenant Pecorini reproach Jugoslavia with accepting from Austria the admission of her independence. Why not? The Jugoslavs for four years past have been in revolt against Austria-Hungary and when that empire has beaten to its knees and accepted their demands, why should they not accept them? Captain Tozzi and Lieutenant Pecorini further ask, "Why did the Jugoslavs accept the birth certificate of their new nation from the Hapsburgs instead of obtaining it from the Allies, as the Czechoslavaks had done?" I have yet to learn that the Allies have recognized the new kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The reproach they make the Allies is that they have not accorded to them the recognition they gave to the Czechoslovaks.

Captain Tozzi and Lieutenant Pecorini declare that "Italy is made to appear by unscrupulous propagandists as an aggressive and imperialistic nation, desirous only to supplement Austria in her role of oppressor of smaller nations." But, in the light of the secret Treaty of London, is she anything else? She is trying,in defiance of the universally admitted principles of the self-determination of peoples, to enslave 750,000 Jugoslavs without their consent and against their will. This is a fact, and no amount of special pleading will get away from it.

The reproach of the secrecy of the Treaty of London is completely justified. It was kept secret, not from the enemy, but from the Serbian Government, which was an ally, and from the Jugoslavs. The reason for its secrecy is not far to seek. All the parties to it had no desire for publicity, as they knew the disastrous effect its publication would have on the Serbs and Jugoslavs whose interests it betrayed.

Fortunately for the world, the United States and the Jugoslavs are not bound by this document, and, in all probability, the first demand of the American delegation will make at the Peace Conference will be that it will be declared bull and void, and that the whole question of the rival claims of the Italians and Jugoslavs be debated on their merits, free from any trammel, diplomatic or otherwise.

Th duty of the Allies is to find means completely to safeguard the interests of the Italian minority in Jugoslavia. Surely, if both sides are animated by good intentions, this should not "pass the wit of men." What Italy should strive for is a close alliance with the new States. With the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes as a buffer State between Italy and the Teuton powers Italy's security is assured. On ne passer pas.

G. Gordon-Smith

The New Jugoslavia
Professor Prince Sees a Bright Future for the Nation
Published: February 9, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

To the Editor of The New York Times:
In this country the highest hopes are entertained for the future of the Southern Vlavonic State which has been formed recently as the "Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes." The population is largely homogenous, nearly all the three peoples using essentially the same language, the Serbo-Croatian. There are religious differences, but these count now for little, and will count less as times goes on.

The new State will, I firmly believe, have a prosperous existence, as the Serbs, on the one hand, and the Croats and Slovenes on the other, supplement each other most admirably. The Serbs still live in the heroic age. Their spiritual food for 400 years has been their own rugged but beautiful literature handed down by their loyal musicians and bards. They are essentially agriculturalists, herdsmen, and foresters, mountaineers of a highly poetical temperament, while the Croats and Slovenes are artisans, sailors and business men. There could not be a more promising union of peoples.

The people of the United States have always been friendly to the Serb nationality, which os the one Slavonic combination at the present moment for whose stability we may hope with certainty. Our news is too scanty regarding the Czechoslovaks or the Poles to enable us to predict anything as to their future. Russia, of course, is hopeless for the present, as it is becoming more and more evident that she must work through her terrible disease of bloodshed by herself. nothing short of a world intervention could save her at this moment, and it is highly unlikely that such intervention will be undertaken by the war-weary allied nations. Russia will eventually recover and stabilize herself, but she must first rid herself of the foul virus bred by her own rotten body politic. The course of a national disorder is very like that of a bodily disease which may cure itself by the formation of a healthy counter-virus, and for this we must hope in Russia. America must look chiefly to the Southern Slavs, the Rumanians, and the Greeks as the most important factors in the future Southern European concert. When Rr. Rathenau of the German General Electric Company said bitterly that we have "Balkanized" Europe he spoke better than he knew, for I have faith that "Balkanization" by the Serbs, Croats and Slovens can only be fraught with good results.

John Dyneley Prince
Slavonic Department, Columbia University

Say Serbs Oppress Croats
Italian Bureau Here Gives Out Message Condemning Conditions.
Published: February 23, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

Serbia has adopted a policy of repression in Croatian and is punishing Croatians who desire to see their country an autonomous State in a Jugoslav Republic, according to a message received by the Italian Information Bureau in this city, and made public yesterday. The cable was received from Agram, and declared that 50,000 Croatians in mass meeting declared their purpose of entering a federation based on the model of the united States with an autonomous Croatia. The message was also sent from Agram to President Wilson and the diplomats at Paris, it was said.

"We demand," said the resolution adopted at the meeting, "that the Serbian army be withdrawn immediately from Croatian territory, from Croatia, Slavonia, Middle Murje, and Dalmatia, because if the Serbian army should remain in these territories the Croatian people would not be free to manifest its will at the election for the constitution; disorders and conflict and even rebellion would ensue."

After referring to what was termed the provocative attitude of the Serbian army and to the agitation carried on for a Greater Serbia, the resolution said "In the name of the Croatian people, independent and with 1,300 years of history, we demand the convening of the Croatian Assembly of the provinces of Croatia, Slavonia, Middle Murje and Dalmatia. We protest against the proclamation of the United Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, because on the Croatians' side only from those persons, who, up to the last moment, faithfully served the Hapsburgs, the Germans and the Magyars, adhered to the proclamation prolonging the errors of the war and the absolute centralization of the ministry in Belgrade.

"This centralization is nothing else than a copy of absolutism of the war, and we condemn it all the more sharply as the Jugoslavs hitherto have been set one against the other by the Serbian government. The same Government showed its love for the people by torturing and killing thousands and thousands of Croatians for the sole reason that they would not hear of a Serbia of the Karageorgevitches, but desired instead a Jugoslav Republic. The Serbian army, even today, by its attitude, shows that same intolerance by beating Croatian peasants to death.

Serbs and Croats.
As to Reports of Oppression and Antagonism.
Published: February 25, 1919 Copyright © The New York Times

To the Editor of the New York Times:
Italy and Austria are concerned over the possible growth of a strong Jugoslav State, and the reasons for their concern are patent. To frustrate this they seek to employ not only such propaganda as my lead to raise provincial and political jealousies among the component parts, but also to play upon religious differences. The immediate method, as indicated in the message given out by the Italian Press Bureau and published in your columns today under the caption. "Say Serbs Oppress Croats," is to arouse feeling against Serbia and to do so in a most unjustifiable manner.

With the collapse of the Austro-hungarian Empire and the spectacular developments in the Balkans and along the Adriatic, we are inclined to overlook the part played by brace little Serbia in the great war and the overwhelming sacrifices made by her in the common cause. We forget that Belgium's struggle and sacrifice, great as they were, were small compared to those of the knights of the Balkans that stood across the pathway of Germany to the East.

The Croats and Slovenes and Serbs of Austria do not forget, however, for long before the war they regarded Serbia as their champion. Before they were liberated they voiced at Corfu their desire for union with Serbia in a strong federation under the Karageorgevich dynasty, and this desire they reiterated when freed from Austrian rule.

Now, however, to attain their ends, the Italians and Austrians seek to break up this accord. Their agents are endeavouring to make the Croats see in the Serbians an imperialistic power that would dominate them. The Catholic Church may look on this move with sympathy, for the Croatians are Catholics, while the Serbians are orthodox. In America, however, another points made. Attention is called to the fact that Serbia is a monarchy, and a play is made to appeal to American feeling by advocating a Jugoslav republic.

This is of course entirely disingenuous. Serbia is a constitutional monarchy, quite as liberal and democratic as England or America, but feeling a devotion to brave old King Peter and Prince Alexander as great as that which the Belgians accord to King Albert. The attempt to play upon American prejudice against the very word "king" is made in a clever effort to separate the Jugoslav peoples. Similar efforts in America are also extended to relief societies, where no stone is left unturned to arouse jealousy and suspicion, and to make each party feel that there is unfairness in effort and in distribution.

The future peace of the Balkans depends on a strong and unified Jugoslavia, and all should be on their guard against an insidious propaganda that seeks to weaken and divide it. J.L. New York, Feb. 23, 1919.