Pogledaj Full Version : Citizen Driven Performance

Željko Zidarić
28th-May-2012, 05:20 PM
Download PDF (http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~spaa/spaa/images/stories/documents/SPAA/CDGPbook.pdf)


Marc Holzer

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Campus at Newark
December, 2005

Performance measurement is an advanced management tool that is becoming more and more sophisticated and systematic. Far from being a static tool, it incorporates a variety of measures and tactics to accommodate the needs of different communities and levels of government over services as diverse as public safety, public works and economic development. Systems of performance measurement and ongoing monitoring, emphasizing indicators and analysis linked to improvement, can help track and improve results over time. Performance measurement can help identify promising areas, helping to select as targets those functions continually faced with large backlogs, slipping deadlines, high turnover, or many complaints. Particularly important in evaluating or tracking or assessing evidence of progress, for example, are timely data which reflect cost savings, additional services, independent evaluations of service levels, client satisfaction, and reductions in waiting or processing times. It is important to examine program effectiveness or outcomes, rather than just quantity or efficacy Productive governments must, therefore, address several dimensions of measurement: internal capacities, outputs produced, and outcomes achieved.

High-performing organizations monitor the production of internal services that contribute to the efficient and effective production of external services for clients. Such internal (or invisible ) services as maintenance, training and auditing are necessary prerequisites to the production of outputs.
Outputs can be measured as services provided in terms of factors such as quantity and quality. Output measurements pose questions such as: How many clients are served? How many units of service are delivered? Are the services delivered to certain standards?
Output, however, is a narrow term that limits interpretations of productivity improvement and program impact. Moving beyond questions of efficiency, measures are designed to detect outcomes of government action that services result in, such as improvements in a client s quality of life.

Public managers and policymakers now have sophisticated performance-measurement tools to help to deliver and improve services. Four approaches are particularly important to building confidence in government s operations among its private sector and public sector stakeholders.

Establishing Goals and Measuring Results: The need to hold programs accountable is particularly important if government is to have credibility with the private sector, with taxpayers, and with the electorate in general. The best public programs are businesslike in that they specify goals, treat those goals as planned targets, and match results with plans.
Estimating and Justifying Resource Requirements: Public sector budgets are estimates of resource requirements. Traditionally, they are based on past expenditures and guesstimates as to future needs. But fiscal planning can be accomplished more systematically and quantitatively. Justifications as to expenditures can be more precise, more objective, and more factual to the extent they are the products of measurement.
Budgeting and Reallocating Resources: Measurement contributes to more productive resource-allocation decisions. It may help save substantial sums by developing and evaluating benefit-cost linkages. It may help reduce costs by highlighting lower-cost alternatives.
Developing Organization-Improvement Strategies: Measures can help bring problems into focus. Once clear, problems can then be addressed in a more systematic manner, such as overcoming obstacles, targeting services, and planning for anticipated problems. In short, measurement can help avoid disappointments and surprises.

The most innovative and productive agencies integrate advanced management techniques into a comprehensive approach to productivity improvement, which other agencies could use as a model for enhanced productivity. This approach includes five key concepts:

Measuring for Performance: In terms of performance measurement, the most successful agencies are those that use the techniques outlined above in order to move from subjective, personal measures of performance to objective, empirical measures. To maximize productivity and success, agencies should establish goals and measure results, using multiple measures of internal capacities, outputs (services), and outcomes (impacts). Performance-measurement tools allow agencies to effectively estimate and justify resource requirements, and when appropriate, reallocate resources. And agencies can involve employees in the process to motivate them to improve their performance.
Managing for Quality: Managing for quality requires top management support, employee empowerment and teamwork. Employees must be adequately trained and recognized for their contributions. Managing for quality demands a customer focus, an emphasis on long-term strategic planning, and a commitment to measurement, analysis, and quality assurance.
Developing Human Resources: One key part of managing for quality is developing human resources. Quality managers need to recruit the best and brightest, and then provide them with systematic training and ongoing employee assistance. The best managers recognize the value of diversity, and they build services by building teams within the organization. They understand the importance of balancing the needs of employees and the needs of the organization.
Adapting Technologies: Managers should not be afraid to use automation to enhance productivity. The most innovative and effective agencies willingly adapt cost-effective applications and crosscutting techniques in order to accomplish their goals. When used well, technology can allow agencies to provide open access to data and to deliver services and information in response to the public s demands.
Building Partnerships: In order to enhance productivity, innovation, and performance, agencies should look for appropriate opportunities to form partnerships. Collaborating with other public-sector entities, members of the private sector, nonprofit organizations, citizens and volunteers can help agencies improve their performance.


The following, seven-step performance measurement system developed by the National Center for Public Productivity at Rutgers University is similarly seen as a strategic process.

Step 1. Identification of the Programs to Measure
Step 2. Statement of Purpose
Step 3. Identification of Program Inputs, Outputs, Efficiency and Productivity Indicators
Step 4. Setting Targets for Accomplishment
Step 5. Monitoring
Step 6. Performance Reporting
Step 7. Analysis and Action